Which rootstocks are winter hardy?

Rootstocks can affect the development of cold hardiness in apple trees, but this is a complex trait, and it may depend on what time of the winter with which one is concerned. Some rootstocks, such as Robusta 5, can cause a tree to harden early in the winter, and these trees are very cold tolerant during the early winter. Some rootstocks, such as Robusta 5, that induce early cold hardiness also lose their hardiness early in the winter in response …

What experimental rootstocks for apples are being looked at in the U.S.?

Many apple rootstocks are being evaluated for potential use in the United States by the NC-140 Multi-State Research Committee. These rootstocks have come from breeding programs in the United States (CG, G), Great Britain (M), Germany (PiAu and Supporter), Poland (P), Czech Republic (J-TE), Japan (JM), and Russia (B). Specific rootstocks that are currently under evaluation in NC-140 plantings include the following: B.9, B.10, B.7-3-150, B.7-20-21, B.67-5-32, B.64-194, B.70-6-8, B.70-20-20, B.71-7-22, G.11, G.16, G.41, G.202, G.935, CG.2034, CG.3001, CG.4003, …