Standard Apple Rootstocks

standard size tree refers to trees growing on seedling or other non-dwarfing rootstock. If trees on standard rootstocks are not pruned to limit tree size, the trees will reach a height of about 30 feet and have a diameter of about 30 feet. Orchards planted before the 1960s often had only 40 trees per acre and were spaced 40 feet by 40 feet. With good pruning, standard size trees can be planted at about 26 feet x 20 feet …

Parentage of Apple Cultivars


Nearly all apple cultivars have two parents – just like humans!  Apples have a genetic system that generally prohibits self-fertilization.  This self-incompatibility system is a way of insuring that each apple seed will be a hybrid between the maternal (seed) parent and a paternal (pollen) parent. The self-incompatibilty system is also the reason why two or more cultivars must be planted in an orchard to achieve fruit production through insect-vectored movement of pollen from one cultivar to the other.


Apple Rootstocks: Understanding and Choosing the Right Rootstock

Apple Rootstock Info: Seedling

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock Seedling

Seedling rootstocks are usually produced from seeds obtained from apple juice plants and are typically ‘Delicious’. Because seedling rootstocks are not clonal, one might expect more tree-to-tree variation than with clonal rootstocks. Trees on seedling rootstocks are considered full sized trees (100% standard) and well pruned mature trees will typically be about 16’ to 18’ tall with a canopy diameter of about 13’ to 16’. Trees on seedling rootstocks generally have good survival, are free-standing,

Apple Rootstock Characteristics and Descriptions

Click on a rootstock to access characteristics and descriptions.

Dwarfing Rootstocks Semi-Dwarfing Rootstocks Standard Size Rootstocks
B.9 B.118 Antonovka 313
G.16 B.490 MM.111 EMLA
B.10 G.202 P.18
G.214 G.11 Seedling
G.41 G.210
G.65 G.30
G.935 G.890
M.27 G.969
M.9 J-TE-H
Mark M.4
Ottawa 3 M.27, M.9 (interstem)/
MM.106 rootstock
P.2 M.27,M.9(interstem)/
MM.111 rootstock
P.22 M.26
Supporter 1 M.7 EMLA
Supporter 4 MM.106 EMLA
V.3 V.1