Parts of an Apple Tree

When discussing apple rootstocks and cultivars, understanding the terminology used to describe the tree is important.  All apple trees purchased from nurseries are grafted or budded, meaning that there are at least two distinct parts of the tree.  The scion is the above ground or vegetative portion of a grafted or budded tree comprised of the trunk, branches, leaves, and fruit.  The scion is the cultivar or the part of the tree that has name recognition such as Gala or …

What apple rootstocks are commercially available?

There are currently at least 23 different apple rootstocks available from rootstock nurseries. Most fruit tree nurseries propagate apple cultivars on about 7 to 10 different rootstocks. The most common dwarfing rootstocks offered by nurseries include several clones of the dwarfing rootstocks M.9 (T-337, NIC 29, Pajam 2 and M-9 EMLA), Bud 9, and EMLA 26. Common semi-dwarf rootstocks include EMLA 7, EMLA 106 and EMLA 111. …

Effect of Wind on Apple Trees

Strong wind, especially wind associated with tropical storms that saturate the soil, can cause fruit trees to lean and sometimes be totally uprooted. Due to small and brittle root systems, dwarfing rootstocks tend to be prone to wind damage.

Susceptibility to wind damage appears to be related to the combination of rootstock and scion cultivar. Some brittle cultivars, such as ‘Gala’ and ‘Golden Delicious’, when propagated on brittle rootstocks, such as G.30 or M.26, may snap at the bud union. …

Southern Blight in Apple Trees

Southern blight is a fungus disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. The disease is a problem primarily in the Piedmont apple growing region in the southeastern United States. S. rolfsii is a widespread pathogen that affects several hundred plant species. The fungus affects the lower stems and roots of apple trees, killing the bark and girdling the trees. The disease is characterized by the presence of a white, weblike mycelium, which often forms at the bases and on the lower stems …

U.S. Fruit Tree Nurseries

Adams County Nursery Inc., 26 Nursery Rd., P.O. Box 108, Aspers, PA 17304

Agri-Sun Nursery, 15935 S. Temperance Ave., Selma, CA 93662

Banning Orchards and Nursery, 4000 Grant Rd., East Wenatchee, WA 98802

Boyer Nursery & Orchards Inc., 405 Boyer Nursery Rd., Biglerville, PA 17307

Brandt’s Fruit Trees Inc., P.O. Box B, Parker, WA 98939

Burchell Nursery Inc., 12000 State Highway 120, Oakdale, CA 95361

Cameron Nursery, 1261 Ringold Rd., P.O. Box 300, Eltopia, WA 99330-0300 …

International Fruit Tree Nurseries

D&L Nursery, 75 Avenue Joxe, 49100 Angers, France

Janssen Brothers Nurseries Limited, PO Box 2711 6030 aa Nederweert, Holland

Jos Morren Nurseries, Bosstraat 85-85 3545, Halen, Belgium

Nakajima Tenkoen Co., No. 34, 1-Chome Nakajima dori, Higashine City, Yamagata Perf. Japan 999-37

Schrama Nursery, Prof. Zuurlaan 10, 8256 PE, Biddinghuizen, Holland

Star Fruits, Les Genets D’or, No. 14, 84430 Mondragon, France

Viveros Requinoa, Victoria Subercaseaux No. 323, Santiago, Chile

Wiel Willems, Zuidwesterringweg 5-II, 8308 PC Nagele, Holland

As Cooperative Extension educators,

U.S. Fruit Tree Rootstock Nurseries

Brandt’s Fruit Trees, Inc., PO Box B, Parker, WA 98951

Burchell Nursery, Inc., 4201 McHenry Ave., Modesto, CA 95356

Cameron Nursery, 1261 Ringold Rd., PO Box 300, Eltopia, WA 99330-0300

Copenhaven Farms Nursery, 12990 SW Copenhaven Rd., Gaston, OR 97119

Cummins Nursery, 18 Glass Factory Bay Rd., Geneva, NY 14456

Grootendorst Nurseries, Lakeside, MI 49116

Four Mile, 27027 South Hwy. 170, Canby, OR 97013

Lawyer Nursery, Inc., 950 Highway 200 West, Plains, MT 59859

I want to espalier an apple tree along a garage wall. What rootstock should I use?

Espalier is a technique of pruning and training apples in two dimensions, usually against a flat surface such as a wall or fence. The rootstock that you choose needs to induce enough vigor in the scion cultivar so that growth occurs but does not produce a tree with too much vigor. The environment where you are located will alter this decision. The colder, northern areas of the United States — that is, USDA hardiness zones 3 and 4 (look up …

What is the best dwarfing apple rootstock for my area?

The best dwarfing rootstock for your area depends on your location, soil type, and what apple production system you wish to utilize. Your location determines likely cold hardiness, vigor, and disease issues. The soil type will influence tree vigor and ultimate tree size. Your apple production system determines whether you need a rootstock which will result in a free-standing tree and what size that tree needs to be, or whether the rootstock needs to be more dwarfing and will result …

Apple Root Suckers

Root suckers are apple tree sprouts that emerge from the rootstock. They grow around the base of the tree. The point of origin of the suckers is the root. This makes them distinguishable from water sprouts, which originate from aboveground parts of the tree. Root suckers cause problems for the main tree in three significant ways:

  • They compete with the main tree for water and nutrients.
  • They are a prime feeding site for woolly apple aphids.
  • They are a potential