Besides the use of rootstocks what horticultural methods can I use to control apple tree size?

The primary method of controlling apple tree size is by using dwarfing rootstocks.¬†While dwarfing rootstocks are the most common practice for controlling size in fruit trees, there are many other methods or techniques used to control the size and vigor of trees. Any practice increasing the harvest index or proportion of biomass going into fruits rather than wood or leaves will tend to reduce the size (total volume or biomass) and vigor (rate of growth) of trees. These horticultural …

Controlling Apple Tree Size by Horticultural Means


Rootstock

The use of dwarfing rootstocks is the primary means utilized to affect tree size. Apples are the fruit crop that most commonly utilizes dwarfing rootstock. Size range from the very dwarfing rootstocks such as M.27 and P.16 to nearly standard size rootstocks such as MM.111 and MM.106. In pears there is not nearly the range in size controlling rootstocks the majority of which are only +/- 20% the size of seedling. Recently dwarfing rootstocks for cherries have been introduced