How are finished apple trees produced in a nursery?

Here is a summary of a nursery production schedule for fruit trees:

• Late fall: Cut/dig rootstock liners.
• Early spring: Plant liners.
• Late summer: Bud rootstock liner.
• Early spring: Cut off top of rootstock liner above bud.
• Late fall: Dig finished trees.
• Early spring: Sell/ship finished trees.

See this article titled Nursery Production of Finished Apple Trees for more detailed information.

Answer provided by Robert Crassweller, Penn State University.…

How do nurseries grow rootstocks?

Rootstocks are commonly propagated by layering to form large stool beds. The “mother plant” is set out in the field. The plant may either be mounded, or it may be trench layered. In mounding, the plant is cut off close to the ground. As the new shoots emerge from the mother plant, they are partially covered with soil or well-decomposed sawdust. The sawdust is renewed periodically during the growing season to prevent the base of the shoot from exposure to …