Deer Damage on Apple Trees

White-tailed deer in the eastern United States are one of the leading causes of damage to crops, including many perennial crops such as apples (figs. 1, 2). Deer feed on dormant shoots as well as growing trees. Much research has gone into controlling deer by excluding them from orchards using fencing; frightening them with loud sounds; repelling them through different compounds, some as common as soap; and reducing the herd through contraception and, as a last resort, hunting.

Figure 1.