White-tailed deer in the eastern United States are one of the leading causes of damage to crops, including many perennial crops such as apples (figs. 1, 2). Deer feed on dormant shoots as well as growing trees. Much research has gone into controlling deer by excluding them from orchards using fencing; frightening them with loud sounds; repelling them through different compounds, some as common as soap; and reducing the herd through contraception and, as a last resort, hunting.
|Figure 1. Apple twigs nipped by deer. Photo: Alan R. Biggs, West Virginia University|
|Figure 2. Apple tree trunk damaged by a deer’s rubbing its antlers against it. Photo: Alan R. Biggs, West Virginia University|
An Integrated Approach to Deer Damage Control (focus on how to reduce deer damage)
Controlling Deer Damage in Missouri (focus on repelling deer)
Emily Hoover, University of Minnesota