How do rootstocks affect apple fruit size?

Results from a number of apple rootstock trials in different regions of North America indicate that some rootstocks can influence fruit size. Trees on M.7, G.16, and M.26 generally produce smaller fruit than trees on M.9. Most other tested rootstocks produce fruit slightly smaller than M.9. Although experiments have not been performed to compare fruit size from trees grown on semi-dwarf or non-dwarfing rootstocks, orchard observations indicate that fruit produced by trees on M.9 are larger than fruit produced by trees on vigorous rootstocks such as seedling and MM.111.

Answer provided by Rich Marini, Penn State University.