Apple Rootstock Info: M.4

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock M.4

Selected in 1912 from unknown parents at the East Malling Research Station in Maidstone, Kent, England. M.4 is slightly dwarfing and produces a tree about 75-80% standard size. It is considered fairly precocious, and trees tend to lean and may require trunk support. M.4 is resistant to collar rot. In an Indian rootstock trial trees on M.4, MM.106, and MM.111 were all about the same size. Cumulative yield was greater than trees on MM.111, similar

Apple Rootstock Info: J-TE-H

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock J-TE-H

Released from Techobuzic, Czech Republic. The early descriptions from Czech researchers suggested that J-TE-H produces a tree about the size of trees on M.26 EMLA. In rootstock trials in the Czech Republic and Spain J-TE-H produced trees about 35 to 40% of standard size, trees produced a moderate number of root suckers, and yield efficiency was less than the other dwarfing rootstocks in the trial (Pajam 1, Pajam 2, M.9, and J-TE-E).  J-TE-H was included

Apple Rootstock Info: V.3

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock V.3

The Vineland series of apple rootstocks originated as open-pollinated hybrids of ‘Kerr’ crabapples and M.9 rootstock and were selected at the Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, Ontario, Canada in 1958. According to information from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, V.3 is slightly smaller than M.9 EMLA and yield and yield efficiency is similar to M.9 EMLA. V.3 is cold hardy and somewhat resistant to fireblight. V.3 was included in the 1994

Apple Rootstock Info: Ottawa 3

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock Ottawa 3

Introduced by the Agriculture Canada Research Station in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada in 1974 as a hardy dwarfing rootstock. The parents were M.9 and ‘Robin’ crab. Ottawa 3 roots poorly in the stoolbed and is often micropropagated. Trees are precocious and produce few rootsuckers and burrknots. It is sensitive to apple stem grooving virus. Ottawa 3 was included in the 1990 NC-140 cultivar/rootstock trial at 12 locations and the 1990 dwarf rootstock trial at 8

Apple Rootstock Info: P.2

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock P.2

Resulted from a cross of M.9 x Common Antonovka and released by the Research Institute of Poland in Skierniewice, Poland. This is a productive, cold hardy, dwarfing rootstock slightly more dwarfing than M.9 NAKBT-337. It is susceptible to fire blight, and wooly apple aphid, but fairly resistant to crown and root rots. It produces few root suckers and burr knots similar to M.9. In NC-140 trials trees survive; depaending on location tree size was similar

How Apple Tree Productivity Is Measured

The simplest approach to measuring productivity is to assess yield on a per-tree basis; it is straightforward and easy to understand. The problem comes when comparing trees of different sizes. For instance, comparing the productivity of apple trees on M.9 NAKBT337 and those on G.30 on a per-tree basis would be meaningless. The size of trees on M.9 NAKBT337 would allow much greater planting densities than would that of trees on G.30. Therefore, trees on M.9 NAKBT337 could have a …

Apple Yield Efficiency

Pomological researchers have assessed other approaches to determining potential yield. Since planting density works together with per-tree yield to determine productivity per acre, researchers have used canopy dimensions to estimate planting density and then estimated potential yield per acre. This approach is perfect if the trees used to measure yield and canopy size are not contained by any pruning. Once the canopy is manipulated, and particularly if it is manipulated differently for trees of different sizes, potential yield per acre …

Sunburn of Apple

Sunburn damage is a skin discoloration of the exposed side of the fruit. Three different types of sunburn can be distinguished based the conditions of their formation;

  1. Sunburn browning is the most common type caused by the concomitant action of radiant heating and UV-B exposure. The symptoms are yellowish, brownish patches on the sun-exposed side of the fruit. Symptoms occur on the surface of the fruit (epidermis and hypodermis) but do not penetrate into the core tissues.
  2. Sunburn necrosis is

Apple Rootstock Info: G.969

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock G.969

G.969 is a semidwarfing rootstock that is resistant to fire blight, crown rot, and woolly apple aphid. It is classified as having growth control between M.7 and MM.106. The rootstocks produce few root suckers or burr knots. Suggested for trial for growers desiring a freestanding tree.

Synonyms Geneva 969
Origin N/A
Availability Limited availability
Tree Size 70-75%
Precocity Intermediate
Winter Hardiness Hardy
Suckering N/A
Tree Support Needed No
Where tested within NC-140 or other research

Apple Tree Propagation: Budding

T-budding or chip budding are the most commonly used methods of apple tree propagation. The best time for T-budding depends on the maturity of the buds to be transferred and on the ease with which the bark “slips” or peels on the stock being budded. In a normal season, T-budding is possible from June to September. Chip budding can be used when the bark is not slipping, for example, in early spring before growth begins or during early summer when …