Because many dwarfing rootstocks have less than the desired level of cold resistance and trees on all dwarfing rootstocks require support, dwarf rootstocks are sometimes used as interstems to combine the desirable characteristics of a vigorous understock and the dwarfing interstem.
Interstem trees consist of three parts:
- A vigorous rootstock (usually MM.111 or MM.106)
- A dwarfing (usually M.9 or M.27) interstem is grafted to the rootstock. The interstem is usually about 6” long, but additional dwarfing can be obtained by