Interstem Apple Trees

Because many dwarfing rootstocks have less than the desired level of cold resistance and trees on all dwarfing rootstocks require support, dwarf rootstocks are sometimes used as interstems to combine the desirable characteristics of a vigorous understock and the dwarfing interstem.

Interstem trees consist of three parts:

  1. A vigorous rootstock (usually MM.111 or MM.106) 
  2. A dwarfing (usually M.9 or M.27) interstem is grafted to the rootstock. The interstem is usually about 6” long, but additional dwarfing can be obtained by

Apple Rootstock Info: G.890

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock G.890

G.890 is a semidwarfing rootstock that is resistant to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), crown rot (Phytopthora spp.) and woolly apple aphid. At this time production of root suckers and burr knots is unknown. Tree size is approximately the same as M.7 but with higher and earlier production.

Synonyms Geneva 890
Origin N/A
Availability Limited availability
Tree Size 70-75%
Precocity Intermediate
Winter Hardiness Hardy
Suckering N/A
Tree Support Needed No
Where tested within NC-140 or other

Apple Rootstock Info: G.65

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock G.65

G.65 was developed by Dr. Jim Cummins at Cornell University. Due to errors in tissue culture buildup of this rootstock, the U.S. distribution of this rootstock has been hindered. Tree size once thought to be about that of M.9 is now considered to be closer to M.27. The rootstock is difficult to propagate in nursery stool beds. It is susceptible to tomato ring spot virus and apple stem grooving virus. Not recommended for commercial planting.

Apple Rootstock Info: Supporter 1

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock Supporter 1

Resulted from a cross between M.9 and Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Supporter 1 was tested at seven locations in the NC-140 1999 trial with ‘Fuji’ as the scion cultivar. Supporter 1 trees had good survival and trees were about 75% as big as M.9 NAKBT337, produced similar numbers of root suckers as M.9 and had slightly high yield efficiency than M.9. European tests indicate it is quite cold hardy.

Synonyms Supp1
Origin M9 X

Apple Rootstock Info: M.4

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock M.4

Selected in 1912 from unknown parents at the East Malling Research Station in Maidstone, Kent, England. M.4 is slightly dwarfing and produces a tree about 75-80% standard size. It is considered fairly precocious, and trees tend to lean and may require trunk support. M.4 is resistant to collar rot. In an Indian rootstock trial trees on M.4, MM.106, and MM.111 were all about the same size. Cumulative yield was greater than trees on MM.111, similar

Apple Rootstock Info: J-TE-H

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock J-TE-H

Released from Techobuzic, Czech Republic. The early descriptions from Czech researchers suggested that J-TE-H produces a tree about the size of trees on M.26 EMLA. In rootstock trials in the Czech Republic and Spain J-TE-H produced trees about 35 to 40% of standard size, trees produced a moderate number of root suckers, and yield efficiency was less than the other dwarfing rootstocks in the trial (Pajam 1, Pajam 2, M.9, and J-TE-E).  J-TE-H was included

Apple Rootstock Info: V.3

Characteristic Detail            Description
Rootstock V.3

The Vineland series of apple rootstocks originated as open-pollinated hybrids of ‘Kerr’ crabapples and M.9 rootstock and were selected at the Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, Ontario, Canada in 1958. According to information from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, V.3 is slightly smaller than M.9 EMLA and yield and yield efficiency is similar to M.9 EMLA. V.3 is cold hardy and somewhat resistant to fireblight. V.3 was included in the 1994

Apple Rootstock Info: Ottawa 3

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock Ottawa 3

Introduced by the Agriculture Canada Research Station in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada in 1974 as a hardy dwarfing rootstock. The parents were M.9 and ‘Robin’ crab. Ottawa 3 roots poorly in the stoolbed and is often micropropagated. Trees are precocious and produce few rootsuckers and burrknots. It is sensitive to apple stem grooving virus. Ottawa 3 was included in the 1990 NC-140 cultivar/rootstock trial at 12 locations and the 1990 dwarf rootstock trial at 8

Apple Rootstock Info: P.2

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock P.2

Resulted from a cross of M.9 x Common Antonovka and released by the Research Institute of Poland in Skierniewice, Poland. This is a productive, cold hardy, dwarfing rootstock slightly more dwarfing than M.9 NAKBT-337. It is susceptible to fire blight, and wooly apple aphid, but fairly resistant to crown and root rots. It produces few root suckers and burr knots similar to M.9. In NC-140 trials trees survive; depaending on location tree size was similar

Apple Rootstock Info: V.1

Characteristic Detail Description
Rootstock V.1

The Vineland series of apple rootstocks originated as open-pollinated hybrids of ‘Kerr’ crabapples and M.9 rootstock and were selected at the Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, Ontario, Canada in 1958. According to information from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, V.1 is in the M.26 size class, and yield and yield efficiency are usually greater than M.26. V.1 is cold hardy and somewhat resistant to fireblight. V.1 was included in the 1994